Chemistry of Reduction Reactions:

Many of the products of oxidative metabolism are substrates for reductive reactions.  This can result in redox cycling, with the balance of cofactors and oxygen concentration ultimately deciding the position of the equilibrium.

Carbon reduction:
  • Alkenes
  • Aldehydes
  • Epoxides
  • Quinones
  • Dihydrodiols
Heteroatom reduction:
  • Nitrogen
  • Sulphur
  • Hydroperoxides


  • Haloalkanes
  • Halobenzenes

To find out more about the metabolism at these different centres, visit the database query page.

Enzymology of Reductive Metabolism:

Many of the enzymes involved in reductive reactions are the same as those involved in oxidative reactions:
3D structure of a CYP enzyme
Cytochrome P450
Cytochrome P450 reductase
Quinone reductase
Alcohol Dehydrogenase
Carbonyl reductase
Aldehyde dehydrogenase
Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase
Molybdenum hydroxylases